Moreover, as we stated at the outset, convincing support for the normalisation thesis would not only require evidence that drug use is extremely widespread, but that usage is perceived to be normal.
Although rare during the early teens, use of drugs increases sharply during the next couple of years so that the late teens are consistently found to be a peak period of illegal drug use ISDD Research avenues and policy Normalization and harm reduction: While respondents aged were, by some way, the most likely to have used a drug inless than half of the males and less than a quarter of the females in this age category had done so.
The study was conducted in the London borough of Newham, the most deprived local authority in the country according to the Census Willmott What may appear to be outlandish stories about tripping were, however, important in confirming and reinforcing norms within non-using circles.
The Extent and Frequency of Young People's Drug Use No discussion of the extent and frequency of young people's drug use can begin without the now familiar disclaimer that definitive answers are not available ISDD Moreover, as we stated at the outset, convincing support for the normalisation thesis would not only require evidence that drug use is extremely widespread, but that usage is perceived to be normal.
In order, then, to argue that the status of a form of behaviour has moved from being 'deviant' to being 'normal', it is necessary to show that as well as being widespread, this form of behaviour has become accepted as normal by the relevant audience s.
Before considering the drug-related attitudes of the young people included in our qualitative study it is worth outlining the extent of their drug-related experiences.
We have argued that, in general, young people do not view drug use as an 'unproblematic' activity. This was clear in the associations they made between drug use, crime and other forms of deviant behaviour.
Nationally, use of dance-drugs appears to be limited to a small sub-section of the youthful population. Acknowledgement The authors are grateful to Charlie Lloyd and Malcolm Ramsay for comments on an initial draft of this article.
At the basis of these neutralisation techniques was the claim that there were no really serious consequences from the drug s being used, and, by implication, that the user was making responsible and rational choices: Therefore, as Erikson Youth subcultures, normalisation and drug prohibition: Second, when shorter time-frame measures are utilised, strong evidence for the normalisation thesis is even more elusive.
The presence of the phrase, 'I don't know whether it's true or not', calls into question the veracity what it being said on this occasion.
Scare stories which highlighted the potentially negative aspects of drug use were an important part of non-users' discourse around drug use. The The normalisation thesis — 20 years later: The explanation of contemporary drug use offered by these authors is underpinned by a subcultural perspective in which the liberal permissive- ness of youth culture is contrasted with the conservative restrictiveness of the adult world.
Lifetime use 2 of cocaine was limited to 4 and 3 per cent of Parker et al. A total of fifty-two young people were interviewed during the course of this study and, although the sample was a non-probability one, care was taken to ensure that people from a broad range of groups were well represented within it.
This is a classic neutralisation technique for, as Coggans and McKellar have noted, 'the assumption that drug use is caused by peer pressure places the blame on others and away from the drug user' Given that proponents of the normalisation thesis have tended to concentrate on measures of lifetime use whether a respondent has used an illicit drug at some time in their life it is worth noting that the extent to which such measures illuminate young people's drug using habits is limited.
Lifetime ecstasy-use was disclosed by seven per cent of ISRD respondents and, although amphetamine and LSD were the second most widely used drugs within the sample, they had each only been used by 9 per cent of respondents Graham and Bowling. The most comprehensive statement of the normalisation thesis was provided in the monograph Illegal Leisure: The Normalisation of Adolescent Recreational Drug Use (Parker et al., ).
Subsequent articles have reported more recent findings from the study, but the conceptual framework has remained largely unchanged since then (Parker et al.
While Measham et al. () and Parker et al.
() have concentrated on behaviour, the normalisation thesis has also been endorsed by social scientists adopting a more attitudinal focus. Parker et al. () tracked the drug attitudes and consumption patterns of a cohort of nearly British normalisation thesis and in this time a growing literature has debated whether the regular, recreational use of some drugs has indeed become normalised among young people.
The normalisation thesis Parker’s work is mainly based on a 5-year longitudinal study of a cohort of young people An examination of the normalisation of cannabis use Parker et al. of consumption (Parker et al., ).
The routinization of breaching the law in respect of ‘recreational’ drug use is a robust measure of normalization to the. By the end of this essay the aim is to have evaluated Howard et al’s work and concluded with whether or not the ‘normalisation’ thesis is applicable in contemporary society.
The ‘Normalisation’ theory emerged from Parker et al in the s.Normalisation thesis parker et al